Transgender patients often experience tremendous barriers to health care, including discrimination and an unfortunate lack of providers who are knowledgeable about and sensitive to this population. As a result, many transgender and non-binary people avoid seeking care for preventive and life-threatening conditions out of fear.
According to a report from The National Transgender Discrimination Survey of more than 6,450 transgender and gender non-conforming people, nearly one in five (19 percent) reported being refused care because they were transgender or gender non-conforming. Survey participants also reported very high levels of postponing medical care when sick or injured due to discrimination and disrespect (28 percent). Half of the sample reported having to teach their medical providers about transgender care.
As a transgender person myself, I know how difficult it can be to access sensitive care.
That's why it's essential for trans and gender nonconforming people to be empowered with the knowledge and information that will help them find the best providers they possibly can, who are knowledgeable and sensitive, and will advocate for their gender nonconforming patients.
It can be hard to know where to start, so I’d recommend looking into the following resources online to help you find trans-friendly medical care near you:
And here are a few questions you might want to consider when looking for a doctor or health care provider who is accessible, inclusive, and who can responsibly and knowledgably care for you:
- Do they have signs or brochures representing the transgender community?
- Have the care providers been trained on issues specific to transgender health?
- Does the organization have a non-discrimination policy that covers sexual orientation and gender identity?
- Do they have experience caring for transgender patients? Specifically, are they able to provide medical advice on how to manage hormones, after-surgery care, and health screenings in the trans population?
- Are they able to provide the necessary accommodations you need to feel comfortable (For instance: a gender-neutral bathroom, a safe and comfortable waiting room environment, willingness to use your requested name and pronoun, etc.)?
- Has their staff (including the office staff) received training on transgender sensitivity?
Even after you’ve found a medical provider, the reality is that transgender patients often still have to teach them about transgender care.
It’s your responsibility to communicate your medical history and needs so that you can get the best, most appropriate care. That can be intimidating and overwhelming, so I’ve outlined a few of the most important things you should go over with your doctor or medical provider.
1. Make sure your provider has a baseline medical history for you.
Once you find a transgender-sensitive health provider, think of this person as your medical ally—someone who can help you with any changes your body is experiencing. In that vein, you’ll want to tell them about your family and personal health history so they can better manage your health care screenings, such as cardiovascular, bone health, diabetes, and cancer screenings.
Cancer screening for transgender people can require a modified approach to current mainstream guidelines. If your provider isn’t sure what that looks like, you can point them towards UCSF Center of Excellence for Transgender Health.
Unfortunately, I know from professional experience that transgender people are often less likely to have routine screenings and cancer screenings due to discomfort with health care providers’ use of gendered language, providers’ lack of knowledge about surgery and hormones, gender-segregated systems, and insensitive care.
2. Discuss your goals and expectations around medical transition, whether it's something you've done, are in the process of, or are interested in pursuing.
Of course, not all transgender and gender non-binary individuals are interested in medical transition—including surgery and/or hormones—but for those who are considering these options, it’s important to select health care providers who understand how to administer and monitor hormones and who are knowledgeable about what is needed for pre- and post-operative care.
So it’s a good idea to ask your provider about their experiences with transition-related medical care or if they can refer you to someone who is experienced in that field. You’ll want to talk with your provider about your goals of hormone therapy, any lab work needed, and any relevant information from your and your family’s medical history.
There are many different surgeries that transgender individuals may undergo to align their body with their gender identity. Share with your medical provider any gender affirming surgeries you have had or are interested in. You deserve to feel comfortable with your surgeon and feel that your health care team is working together.
As your body changes, stay informed about what additional screenings may be needed. For instance, although the data linking hormone therapy to cancer is inconclusive (when taken correctly and monitored by a medical provider), it is still important to discuss risks with your provider.
For patients who currently have hormone-dependent cancers, it is imperative that you discuss with your oncologist and your primary care provider any past history or current use of hormones.
I know that some cancer screenings such as Pap smears and prostate screenings can be incredibly uncomfortable for some transgender and gender non-binary people. Finding sensitive providers is essential to not delay important screenings.
3. As awkward as it may be, discuss your sexual history and activity in a way that allows your medical provider to accurately assess your sexual health needs.
It’s unfortunately not uncommon for transgender men to skip pelvic exams (whether they fear discrimination, think they don't need them, or avoid them for dysphoria-related reasons). It’s also not uncommon to forego preventive health care, such as STI screenings, out of fear of discrimination or disrespect. This can hurt the transgender population’s health.
Of course it can be awkward, but your sexual health is an important topic to discuss with your provider, so they shouldn't make you feel too uncomfortable to talk about it. If you feel your provider is not conducting transgender-sensitive sexual histories, you should feel empowered to give them this feedback. You can even ask your provider to use the language you feel most comfortable with to describe your and your partner’s bodies. This is important because they can help you to understand how to have sex that is safe, affirming, and specific to your body and identity.
It’s also important to tell your provider the nitty gritty/details about your sex life and history (like: how many sexual partners you have had, whether you're using condoms or dental dams during sex, what kind of sex you are having, and if and when you were last tested for STIs and HIV).
Unfortunately, surveys tell us that transgender people are less likely to get tested for STIs because of the discrimination and fear they face when talking about their bodies and identity. According to the CDC, in 2015, the percent of transgender people who were newly diagnosed with HIV was more than three times the national average. Trans women are at an especially high risk for HIV; in particular, African American trans women have the highest newly diagnosed HIV rates within the transgender community.
Be proactive and ask what you should be doing to reduce your risk of STIs and HIV. One option your physician may discuss with you is pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily pill that can greatly reduce your risk of HIV infection, and may be appropriate for some patients.
I know it can be uncomfortable to have these conversations with a medical provider, and it can be just as difficult to have them with your partner. To help get you started, here are some helpful resources on sexual health for trans women and trans men.
4. If you're using substances, ask your medical provider for trans-sensitive resources and referrals for substance support services.
Substance and tobacco use can often be the result of depression and anxiety associated with discrimination by the community. In fact, the National Transgender Discrimination Survey showed that 26 percent of transgender individuals use or have used alcohol and drugs frequently, compared with 7.3 percent of the general population according to a National Institute of Health’s report. In addition, 30 percent of the transgender participants reported smoking regularly compared with 20.6 percent of U.S. adults.
There are many risks associated with substance and tobacco use, especially in combination with hormone therapy. Smoking can cause an increased risk of some cancers, blood clots, and heart disease, and it may negatively impact the outcome of hormone therapy, among other complications. Talk to your provider about resources to help decrease substance dependency.
5. If you’re experiencing anxiety, depression, or any other mental health symptoms, bring it up to your health care provider.
When it comes to getting help or making that first call, you don't have to wait until things get "bad enough." Unfortunately, mental health issues can be prevalent in the transgender community as a result of isolation, rejection, lack of resources, and discrimination. Share with your provider any feelings of depression or anxiety you may be having. They can help manage your care and recommend a trans-sensitive mental health professional, which can be challenging to navigate on your own.
If you are in crisis, contact Trans Lifeline at 877-565-8860.
6. Tell your physician if you’re interested in potentially having children someday.
Transgender populations have fertility concerns that are often unaddressed by providers. If you are interested in potentially starting a family someday, make sure to talk to your provider about your reproductive health and fertility options early on, especially if you're considering medical transition or have transitioned.
Transgender men may need to discuss cessation of testosterone if they are interested in becoming pregnant. And if transgender women are interested in having children using their own sperm, they may need to use sperm banking services because of estrogen’s potential effect on sperm production.
Finding trans-sensitive ob/gyn care, birth control resources specific to the trans population, and trans-sensitive fertility support can be difficult, but there are resources that can make it easier, like the ones listed at the beginning of this article.
Finally, remember that you are deserving of a responsible, knowledgeable health care team.
While patients often initially come into a medical office nervous, when they find a healthcare team the trust, they are able to open up more, sharing more information and asking more questions.
As a healthcare provider, I’ve witnessed these patients who become increasingly empowered to take control of their own health have lasting positive effects, including better overall wellness and greater confidence and self-esteem. Everyone deserves that level of care.
Nathan Levitt, FNP-BC, is a family nurse practitioner and coordinator with NYU Langone Health’s transgender program, a member of the transgender community, and a national leader in transgender care. Year after year, NYU Langone Health has been recognized as a leader in LGBTQ+ healthcare equality by the Human Rights Campaign Foundation in the Healthcare Equality Index (HEI) Report. For more information visit: For more information, please call 212-263-3030.